Full Bio

Robert Pesale, DC

2505 Main Street
Stratford, CT  06615

203.386.9100 (phone)
203.375.3963 (fax)

drpesale@drpesale.com

www.drpesale.com

SELECTED OCCUPATIONAL HISTORY

Clinic Director, Chiropractor, Stratford Chiropractic Spine & Injury Center, Stratford, Connecticut, 1990- Present

EDUCATION AND LICENSURE

Doctor of Chiropractic, Licensed in the State of Connecticut, License #718, 1988- Present

Doctor of Chiropractic, Licensed in the State of Maryland, License #1408, 1988-Inactive

Doctor of Chiropractic, Licensed in the State of New York, License # 5241, 1987- Inactive

Doctorate of Chiropractic, Palmer College of Chiropractic, Davenport, Iowa, 1987

National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, Part I, 1986

National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, Part II, 1986

National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, Part IIl, 1986

Bachelor of Science in Life Science, New York Institute of Technology, Old Westbury, New York, 1985

SELECTED POST-GRADUATION EDUCATION, CERTIFICATIONS AND DIPLOMATES

  • Primary Spine Care Symposium – Interprofessional Spine Care, Clinical analysis of anatomic versus biomechanical spine pain and clinical triage protocols.  Relating current research trends in the Whole Spine Model of patient including normal versus abnormal sagittal curvature in the adolescent and adult spine, pelvic incidence as a parameter for sagittal balance in the human spine and current methods of assessment. Patient centered approach to Evidenced Based Spine care with a focus on diagnosis, prognosis and triage of the spine pain patient, Texas Chiropractic College Post-Doctoral Division, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Melville, NY 2017

 

  • Primary Spine Care Symposium – Epidemiology of Spine Pain, Review of the current Centers for Disease Control [CDC} data on the frequency of musculoskeletal pain in the United States population with emphasis on pain of spinal origin.  CDC guidelines on opioid medication were discussed and correlated to persistent pain syndromes.  Research was reviewed showing the importance of managing the spine pain patient properly from the entry point of care with a concentration on maintenance of spinal biomechanics, Texas Chiropractic College Post-Doctoral Division, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Melville, NY 2017

 

  • Primary Spine Care Symposium- Connective Tissue and Spinal Disc Pathology, The morphology and pathology of connective tissue, inclusive of spinal disc disorders and prognosticating wound repair with permanency implications. Disc bulge, herniation, protrusion and extrusion classifications based upon contemporary literature and how to age-date disc pathology, Texas Chiropractic College Post-Doctoral Division, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Melville NY 2017

 

  • Primary Spine Care Symposium – Physiology and Anatomy of Spinal Manual Adjusting, Understanding the role of mechanoreceptors, proprioceptors and nociceptors with facets, ligaments, tendons and muscles in aberrant spinal biomechanics. MRI and imaging studies of decompressing via a chiropractic spinal adjustment of the bio-neuro-mechanical lesion and its effects on the central nervous system both reflexively and supratentorally, Texas Chiropractic College Post-Doctoral Division, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Melville NY 2017

 

  • Primary Spine Care Symposium – Medical-Legal Documentation, The contemporary documentation required in a medical-legal environment that is evidenced based and meets the standards of the courts and academia. Utilizing the scientific data to support a diagnosis, prognosis and treatment plan while meeting the admissibility standards based upon a professional’s credentials. Texas Chiropractic College Post-Doctoral Division, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Melville, NY 2017

 

  • MRI Spinal Anatomy, Protocols and Disc Pathology, Normal anatomy of axial and sagittal views utilizing T1, T2, gradient and STIR sequences of imaging. Degeneration and annular fissures of discs in both trauma and non-trauma patients and the biochemical properties of joints in age dating pathology. Disc bulges from degenerative and sequalla to osseous issues, herniation pathology and protrusion, extrusion, migrated and sequestered variations. Clinical scenarios as sequella to disc and pre-existing pathologies. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2017

 

  • Chiropractic Biophysics Basic Certified Physician Certification involves 7 Chiropractic Biophysics (CBP) technique conferences to learn advanced treatment and diagnostic protocols of Chiropractic Biophysics. The 7 courses are post-graduate level courses and cover approximately 90 hours of credits. Pediatrics, Whiplash and Spinal Trauma, Scoliosis management and treatment, Spinal Biomechanics, Scoliosis casting and bracing procedures,  Posture, neurology & Systemic Health, Advanced Full spine Analysis and treatment Protocols. Life University, Eagle, Idaho, 2017.

 

  • Stroke Anatomy and Physiology: Brain Vascular Anatomy, The anatomy and physiology of the brain and how blood perfusion effects brain function. A detailed analysis of the blood supply to the brain and the physiology of ischemia. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2017

 

  • Stroke Anatomy and Physiology: Stroke Types and Blood Flow, Various types of stroke identifying ischemia, hypoperfusion, infarct and penumbra zones and emboli. Cardiac etiologies and clinical features as precursor to stroke with associated paradoxical emboli and thrombotic etiologies. Historical and co-morbidities that have etiology instroke inclusive of diabetes, coagulopathy, acquired and hereditary deficiencies. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2017

 

  • Stroke Principles of Treatment an Overview for the Primary Care Provider, Stroke type and treatments performed by vascular specialists. The goals of treatment with the physiology of the infarct and penumbra zones and the role of immediate triage in the primary care setting. Detailing the complications of stroke and future care in the chiropractic, primary care or manual medicine clinical setting. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2017

 

  • Clinical Evaluation and Protocols for Identifying Stroke Risk, The neurological history and examination for identifying stroke risks with a focus on supra and infratentorial regions, upper and lower motor lesions, cranial nerve signs, spinal cord pathology, motor and sensory pathology and gait abnormalities. Examining genetic and family histories along with dissection risk factors. Stroke orthopaedic testing and clinical guidelines pertaining to triage for the primary care provider. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2017

 

  • Chiropractic Biophysics Basic Certified Physician Certification involves 7 Chiropractic Biophysics (CBP) technique conferences to learn the fundamentals of CBP and successfully passing a test to demonstrate mastery of the methods. The 7 courses are post-graduate courses and cover approximately 90 hours of credits that are approved across a spectrum of continuing education categories. Basics of CBP: Radiographic & Postural Protocols, Mirror Image Drop Table adj. Leg Length Inequality & Orthotics; Mirror Image Instrument Adjusting & Upper Cervical Analysis; Structural Rehabilitation of the Cervical Spine; Structural Rehabilitation of the Lumbar Spine; Structural Rehab of Thoracic Spine & Case Management; CBP Hands on Training Workshop. Life University, Eagle, Idaho, 2016

 

  • Medical-Legal-Insurance Documentation, Accurate and compliant documentation of history and clinical findings inclusive of functional losses, loss of activities of daily living, duties under duress and permanent loss of enjoyment of life. Prognosing static vs. stable care, gaps in care both in the onset and in the middle of passive care with a focus on detailed diagnosing. The integration of chiropractic academia, the court system and the insurance reimburser’s requirements for complete documentation. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2016

 

  • Primary Spine Care - Credentials and Knowledge Base, The credentials and knowledge based from an academia perspective when cooperatively treating in a collaborative environment inclusive of understanding pathology and mechanical spine issues, Texas Chiropractic College Graduate Doctoral Program, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2016

 

  • Primary Spine Care - Spinal Biomechanical Engineering and MRI Spine Interpretation, Integrating Spinal Biomechanical Engineering and MRI Spine Interpretation into a primary spine care model, inclusive of necessity and acquisition protocols. A comprehensive review the latest evidence in documenting mechanical issues, Texas Chiropractic College Graduate Doctoral Program, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2016

 

  • Primary Spine Care - Hospital Administration, Triage, Clinical Requirements and Collaborative Relationships with Medical Specialists, Understanding hospital and medical specialist's care paths for mechanical spine pathology and integrating the doctor of chiropractic in the hospital and allopathic treatment protocols, Texas Chiropractic College Graduate Doctoral Program, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2016

 

  • Primary Spine Care - Contemporary Spine Research and Documentation, Central nervous system connection and the thalamus, hypothalamus connection in both ascending and descending central pathways with neuro-endocrine implications that have the mechanisms to be a component of Schizophrenia, Dementia and Alzheimer’s with a linear relationship to the chiropractic spinal adjustment and chronic pain, Texas Chiropractic College Graduate Doctoral Program, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2015

 

  • MRI History and Physics, Magnetic fields, T1 and T2 relaxations, nuclear spins, phase encoding, spin echo, T1 and T2 contrast, magnetic properties of metals and the historical perspective of the creation of NMR and MRI. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

 

  • MRI Spinal Anatomy and Protocols, Normal anatomy of axial and sagittal views utilizing T1, T2, 3D gradient and STIR sequences of imaging. Standardized and desired protocols in views and sequencing of MRI examination to create an accurate diagnosis in MRI. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

 

  • MRI Disc Pathology and Spinal Stenosis, MRI interpretation of bulged, herniated, protruded, extruded, sequestered and fragmented disc pathologies in etiology and neurological sequelae in relationship to the spinal cord and spinal nerve roots. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

 

  • MRI Spinal Pathology, MRI interpretation of bone, intradural, extradural, cord and neural sleeve lesions. Tuberculosis, drop lesions, metastasis, ependymoma, schwanoma and numerous other spinal related tumors and lesions. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

 

  • MRI Methodology of Analysis, MRI interpretation sequencing of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine inclusive of T1, T2, STIR and 3D gradient studies to ensure the accurate diagnosis of the region visualized.  Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

 

  • MRI Clinical Application, The clinical application of the results of space occupying lesions. Disc and tumor pathologies and the clinical indications of manual and adjustive therapies in the patient with spinal nerve root and spinal cord insult as sequelae. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

 

  • MRI Protocols Clinical Necessity, MRI slices views, T1, T2, STIR axial, stacking, FFE, FSE and sagittal images. Clinical indication for the utilization of MRI and pathologies of disc in both trauma and non-trauma sequellae, including bulge, herniation, protrusion, extrusion and sequestration. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

 

  • MRI Interpretation of Lumbar Degeneration/Bulges, MRI slices views, T1, T2, STIR axial, stacking, FFE, FSE and sagittal images in the interpretation of lumbar degeneration. With the co-morbidities and complications of stenosis, pseudo-protrusions, cantilevered vertebrate, Schmorl's nodes and herniations. Central canal and cauda equina compromise interpretation with management. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

 

  • MRI Interpretation of Lumbar Herniations, MRI slices views, T1, T2, STIR axial, stacking, FFE, FSE and sagittal images in the interpretation of lumbar herniations. With the co-morbities and complications of stenosis, pseudo-protrusions, cantilevered vertebrate, Schmorl's nodes and herniations. Morphology of lumbar disc pathologies of central and lateral herniations, protrusions, extrusions, sequestration, focal and broad based herniations are defined and illustrated. Central canal and cauda equina compromise interpretation with management. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

 

  • MRI Interpretation of Cervical Degeneration/Bulges, MRI slices views, T1, T2, STIR axial, stacking, FFE, FSE and sagittal images in the interpretation of cervical degeneration. With the co-morbidities and complications of stenosis, pseudo-protrusions, cantilevered vertebrate, Schmorl's nodes and herniations. Spinal cord and canal compromise interpretation with management. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016 

 

  • MRI Interpretation of Cervical Herniations, MRI slices views, T1, T2, STIR Axial, FFE, FSE and sagittal images in the interpretation of lumbar herniations. With the co-morbidities and complications of stenosis, pseudo-protrusions, cantilevered vertebrate, Schmorl's nodes and herniations. morphology of lumbar disc pathologies of central and lateral herniations, protrusions, extrusions, sequestration, focal and broad based herniations are defined and illustrated. Spinal cord and canal compromise interpretation with management.  Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

 

  • MRI Interpretation of Degenerative Spine and Disc Disease with Overlapping Traumatic Insult to Both Spine and Disc, MRI slices, views, T1, T2, STIR Axial, FFE, FSE and sagittal images in the interpretation of degenerative spondylolisthesis, spinal canal stenosis, Modic type 3 changes, central herniations, extrusions, compressions, nerve root compressions, advanced spurring and thecal sac involvement from an orthopedic, emergency room, chiropractic, neurological, neurosurgical, physical medicine perspective.  Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016 

 

  • Neurodiagnostics, Imaging Protocols and Pathology of the Trauma Patient, An in-depth understanding of the protocols in triaging and reporting the clinical findings of the trauma patient. Maintaining ethical relationships with the medical-legal community. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2016

 

  • Diagnostics, Risk Factors, Clinical Presentation and Triaging the Trauma Patient, An extensive understanding of the injured with clinically coordinating the history, physical findings and when to integrate neurodiagnostics. An understanding on how to utilize emergency room records in creating an accurate diagnosis and the significance of “risk factors” in spinal injury. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2016

 

  • Crash Dynamics and Its Relationship to Causality, An extensive understanding of the physics involved in the transference of energy from the bullet car to the target car. This includes G's of force, newtons, gravity, energy, skid marks, crumple zones, spring factors, event data recorder and the graphing of the movement of the vehicle before, during and after the crash. Determining the clinical correlation of forces and bodily injury. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2016

 

  • MRI, Bone Scan and X-Ray Protocols, Physiology and Indications for the Trauma Patient, MRI interpretation, physiology, history and clinical indications, bone scan interpretation, physiology and clinical indications, x-ray clinical indications for the trauma patient. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2016

 

  • Neurodiagnostic Testing Protocols, Physiology and Indications for the Trauma Patient, Electromyography (EMG), Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV), Somato Sensory Evoked Potential (SSEP), Visual Evoked Potential (VEP), Brain Stem Auditory Evoked Potential (BAER) and Visual-Electronystagmography (V-ENG) interpretation, protocols and clinical indications for the trauma patient. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2016

 

  • Documentation and Reporting for the Trauma Victim, Understanding the necessity for accurate documentation and diagnosis utilizing the ICD-9 and the CPT to accurately describe the injury through diagnosis. Understanding and utilizing state regulations on reimbursement issues pertaining to healthcare. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2016

 

  • Documenting Clinically Correlated Bodily Injury to Causality, Understanding the necessity for accurate documentation, diagnosis and clinical correlation to the injury when reporting injuries in the medical-legal community. Documenting the kinesiopathology, myopathology, neuropathology, and pathophysiology in both a functional and structural paradigm. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2016

 

  • Accident Reconstruction: Terms, Concepts and Definitions, The forces in physics that prevail in accidents to cause bodily injury. Quantifying the force coefficients of vehicle mass and force vectors that can be translated to the occupant and subsequently cause serious injury. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2012

 

  • Accident Reconstruction: Causality, Bodily Injury, Negative Acceleration Forces, Crumple Zones and Critical Documentation, Factors that cause negative acceleration to zero and the subsequent forces created for the vehicle that get translated to the occupant. Understanding critical documentation of hospitals, ambulance reports, doctors and the legal profession in reconstructing an accident. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2012

 

  • Accident Reconstruction: Skid Marks, Time, Distance, Velocity, Speed Formulas and Road Surfaces, The mathematical calculations necessary utilizing time, distance, speed, coefficients of friction and acceleration in reconstructing an accident. The application of the critical documentation acquired from an accident site. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2012

 

  • Accident Reconstruction: Research, Causality and Bodily Injury, Delta V issues correlated to injury and mortality, side impact crashes and severity of injuries, event data recorder reports correlated to injury, frontal impact kinematics, crash injury metrics with many variables and inquiries related to head restraints. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2012

 

  • Spinal Biomechanical Engineering: Cartesian System, The Cartesian Coordinate System from the history to the application in the human body. Explanation of the x, y and z axes in both translation and rotations (thetas) and how they are applicable to human biomechanics. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

 

  • Spinal Biomechanical Engineering: Cervical Pathobiomechanics, Spinal biomechanical engineering of the cervical and upper thoracic spine. This includes the normal and pathobiomechanical movement of both the anterior and posterior motor units and normal function and relationship of the intrinsic musculature to those motor units. Nomenclature in reporting normal and pathobiomechanical findings of the spine. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016 

 

  • Spinal Biomechanical Engineering: Lumbar Pathobiomechanics, Spinal biomechanical engineering of the lumbar spine. This includes the normal and pathobiomechanical movement of both the anterior and posterior motor units and normal function and relationship of the intrinsic musculature to those motor units. Nomenclature in reporting normal and pathobiomechanical findings of the spine. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016 

 

  • Spinal Biomechanics in Trauma, to utilize whiplash associated disorders in various vectors of impact and whiplash mechanisms in determining pathobiomechanics. To clinically correlate annular tears, disc herniations, fractures, ligament pathology and spinal segmental instability as sequellae to pathobiomechanics from trauma. The utilization of digital motion x-ray in diagnosing normal versus abnormal facet motion along with case studies to understand the clinical application. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016 

 

  • Spinal Biomechanical Engineering & Organizational Analysis, Integrating spinal biomechanics and pathobiomechanics through digitized analysis. The comparison of organized versus disorganized compensation with regional and global compensation. Correlation of the vestibular, ocular and proprioceptive neurological integration in the righting reflex as evidenced in imaging. Digital and numerical algorithm in analyzing a spine. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016 

 

  • Spinal Biomechanical Engineering: Cervical Digital Analysis, Digitizing and analyzing the cervical spine in neutral, flexion and extension views to diagnose pathobiomechanics. This includes alteration of motion segment integrity (AMOSI) in both angular and translational movement. Ligament instability/failure/pathology are identified all using numerical values and models. Review of case studies to analyze pathobiomechanics using a computerized/numerical algorithm. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016 

 

  • Spinal Biomechanical Engineering: Lumbar Digital Analysis, Digitalizing and analyzing the lumbar spine images to diagnose pathobiomechanics. This includes anterior and posterior vertebral body elements in rotational analysis with neutral, left and right lateral bending in conjunction with gate analysis. Ligament instability/failure/pathology is identified all using numerical values and models.  Review of case studies for analysis of pathobiomechanics using a computerized/numerical algorithm along with corrective guidelines. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016 

 

  • Spinal Biomechanical Engineering: Full Spine Digital Analysis, Digitalizing and analyzing the full spine images to diagnose pathobiomechanics as sequellae to trauma in relation to ligamentous failure and disc and vertebral pathology as sequellae. This includes anterior and posterior vertebral body elements in rotational analysis with neutral, left and right lateral bending in conjunction with gate analysis. Ligament instability/failure/pathology is identified all using numerical values and models. Review of case studies for analysis of pathobiomechanics using a computerized/numerical algorithm along with corrective guidelines. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016 

 

  • Spinal Trauma Pathology, Triage and Connective Tissue Injuries and Wound Repair, Triaging the injured and differentially diagnosing both the primary and secondary complaints. Connective tissue injuries and wound repair morphology focusing on the aberrant tissue replacement and permanency prognosis potential. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, New York, 2016

 

  • Spinal Trauma Pathology, Ligament Anatomy and Injury Research and Spinal Kinematics, Spinal ligamentous anatomy and research focusing on wound repair, future negative sequelae of abnormal tissue replacement and the resultant aberrant kinematics and spinal biomechanics of the spine. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, New York, 2016

 

  • Spinal Trauma Pathology, Spinal Biomechanics, Central Nervous System and Spinal Disc Nomenclature, The application of spinal biomechanical engineering models in trauma and the negative sequelae it has on the central nervous system inclusive of the lateral horn, periaqueductal grey matter, thalamus and cortices involvement. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, New York, 2016

 

  • Spinal Trauma Pathology, Biomechanics of Traumatic Disc Bulge and Age Dating Herniated Disc Pathology, The biomechanics of traumatic disc bulges as sequelae from trauma and the comorbidity of ligamentous pathology. Age-dating spinal disc pathology in accordance with Wolff’s Law. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, New York, 2016

 

  • Spinal Trauma Pathology, Clinical Grand Rounds, The review of case histories of mechanical spine pathology and biomechanical failures inclusive of case histories, clinical findings and x-ray and advanced imaging studies. Assessing comorbidities in the triage and prognosis of the injured. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, New York, 2016

 

  • Spinal Trauma Pathology, Research Perspectives, The review of current literature standards in spinal trauma pathology and documentation review of biomechanical failure, ligamentous failure and age-dating disc pathology. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, New York, 2016

 

  • Patient Intake, History and Physical Examination, Determining the etiology of the patient's complaints in a traumatic or non-traumatic scenario. Analyzing the patient's past history and review of systems along with the performance of a complete orthopedic, neurological and clinical examination to correlate both past, current and causality issues to formulate an accurate diagnosis, prognosis and treatment plan. There is an emphasis on triaging both the trauma and non-trauma patients.  Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2016

 

  • Triaging the Trauma and Non-Trauma Patients, Correlating clinical findings and the patient history in determining the correct course of care in triaging the patient utilizing orthopedic and neurological evaluations in the clinical setting. Understanding the parameters for immediate referrals vs. following the continuum of care to determine the necessity for referrals. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2016

 

  • Orthopedic Testing: Principles, Clinical Application and Triage, Integration of orthopedic testing in the clinical setting to develop a differential diagnosis. Utilizing radiographic and advanced imaging inclusive of MRI and CAT scan findings to verify tissue pathology suspected by orthopedic testing conclusions and developing a treatment plan as sequelae. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

 

  • Orthopedic Testing: Cervical Spine, Integration of cervical orthopedic testing in the clinical setting to develop a differential diagnosis. Utilizing radiographic and advanced imaging inclusive of MRI and CAT scan findings to verify tissue pathology suspected by orthopedic testing conclusions and developing a treatment plan as sequelae. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016 

 

  • Orthopedic Testing: Cervical Spine, Integration of cervical orthopedic testing in the clinical setting to develop a differential diagnosis. Utilizing radiographic and advanced imaging inclusive of MRI and CAT scan findings to verify tissue pathology suspected by orthopedic testing conclusions and developing a treatment plan as sequelae. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

 

  • Orthopedic Testing: Lumbar Spine, Integration of lumbar orthopedic testing in the clinical setting to develop a differential diagnosis. Utilizing radiographic and advanced imaging inclusive of MRI and CAT scan findings to verify tissue pathology suspected by orthopedic testing conclusions and developing a treatment plan as sequelae. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

 

  • Orthopedic Testing: Clinical Grand Rounds, how to integrate orthopedic testing in the clinical setting utilizing both simple and complex patient scenarios. It includes potential stroke, or vertebrobasilar insufficient patients and understanding the nuances in a clinical evaluation with orthopedic testing as a critical part of the evaluation and screening process. How to integrate orthopedic testing in the clinical setting utilizing both simple and complex patient scenarios. It includes potential stroke, or vertebrobasilar insufficient patients and understanding the nuances in a clinical evaluation with orthopedic testing as a critical part of the evaluation and screening process. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016  

 

  • Interprofessional Hospital Based Spine Care, Trends in hospital and emergent care in the healthcare delivery system inclusive of policies, hospital staffing and current care paths for mechanical spine issues. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2016

 

  • Head Trauma, Brain Injury and Concussion, Brain and head physiology, brain mapping and pathology as a sequella to trauma. Traumatic brain injury, mild traumatic brain injury, axonal shearing, diffuse axonal injury and concussion are detailed in etiology and clinically. Clinical presentation advanced diagnostic imaging and electrodiagnostics are detailed in analysis to create a differential diagnosis. Balance disorders that often occur as a result of trauma are also explored from clinical presentation to advanced imaging and differential diagnosis Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2016

 

  • Impairment Rating, The understanding and utilization of the protocols and parameters of the AMA Guide to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment 6th Edition. Spine, neurological sequelae, migraine, sexual dysfunction, sleep and arousal disorders, station and gait disorders and consciousness are detailed for impairment rating. Herniated discs, radiculopathy, fracture, dislocation and functional loss are also detailed in relation to impairment ratings. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

 

  • Primary Spine Care – MRI, Bone Edema and Degeneration, The effects of trauma on spinal vertebral segments and the short and long term sequella to morphology. Identifying and diagnosing bone edema, spurring, types of degeneration in assessing biomechanical stability in conjunction with Modic and Pfeiffer changes.   Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic, PACE Recognized by the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Melville NY, 2016

 

  • Connective Tissue Pathology and Trauma, Wound repair of axial connective tissue and the negative spinal biomechanical engineering sequella. Determining causality from an accident reconstruction perspective inclusive of transference of forces and G’s of energy realized by automobile occupants. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic, PACE Recognized by the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Melville NY, 2016

 

  • CBP Structural Rehabilitation of the Cervical Spine, This course provides an integrated education for the Doctor of Chiropractic in the science and art of cervical spine disorders.  Detailed literature reviews covering the crisis of cervical disorders in patient populations, the roles of spinal manipulative therapy and structural correction of sagittal cervical lordosis was covered. Ideal Spine Health Center, 2016

 

  • Chiropractic and Exercise, Neurology of Subluxation, Nutrition, Functional Stretching, Functional Exercise, Longevity. Life-West Longevity, 2015

 

  • CBP Structural Rehabilitation of the Lumbar Spine, This course provides an integrated education for the Doctor of Chiropractic in the science and art of lumbo-pelvic disorders.  Detailed literature reviews covering the crisis of lumbar disorders in patient populations, the role of spinal manipulative therapy and structural correction of sagittal lumbar lordosis as covered. Ideal Spine Health Center, 2014

 

  • Spinal Decompression Certification, This course covers areas of treatment options, programs and protocols, clinical aspects of decompression, medical outcome studies, manual technique methodology, decompression, differences in machines, decompression vs. traction and surgery, spinal decompression for the regulatory community, compliance and liability and decompression. Hill Labs, 2014

 

  • Foundational Laboratory, Analysis, Principles of analyzing blood test results from a functional, nutritional, and preventative perspective. Texas Chiropractic College, 2014

 

  • Dr. Terry Yocum’s MRI Course, This course on MRI of the spine is offered to increase the chiropractor’s ability to interpret the radiology reports of MRI scans on their patients and integrate this information into their treatment plans.  This course will also enhance and increase their ability to look at the MRI scans and have a better understanding of the anatomy and pathology that may be present in their patients.  A considerable amount of time was spent on normal anatomy in both the axial and sagittal plane, which seems to be an area of deficiency for the practicing chiropractor.  At the completion of this course, the chiropractor will be better prepared to integrate the modalities of magnetic resonance imaging in their clinical practice.   New York Chiropractic College, 2013

 

  • Clinical Applications of Joint Manipulation, This program of study is central to the hands of adjusting of joints without the use of instrumentation or anaesthesia.  The program is designed to promote maximum skill acquisition in adjusting by the Chiropractor.  The participant will be immersed in practical application learning scenarios based upon a neurological model of health care. Carrick Institute, 2006

 

  • Neuron Theory and Receptor Activation, Advanced components of neuronal structure and activity with emphasis on the relationship between environmental potentials and their effects on the central nervous system. Carrick Institute, 2015

 

  • Reflexogenic Systems, Review of the structure and function of spinal cord reflexes from monosynaptic to cross cord reflexes.  Clinical applications were emphasized in relationship to the use of modalities in the treatment of central and peripheral based disorders of muscle tone. Carrick Institute, 2005

 

  • Peripheral Nerve Disorders and Neurophysiologic Testing, A review of Peripheral nerve injury, entrapment, and diseases will illustrate peripheral nerve dysfunction.  The neurophysiologic testing of peripheral nerves including nerve conduction velocity, late responses, and needle electromyography.  Case studies will help the learner correlate the neurophysiologic testing with the neve dysfunction. Carrick Institute, 2003

 

  • Dan Murphy’s Spinal Trauma CCST Program, Trauma & Neurology, Principles of Soft Tissue Injury & Repair, Clinical Trauma Management, Mechanisms of Vehicular Accident Injuries, Recordkeeping, Examination Procedures, Rehabilitation. Life College – West, 1997

 

  • Arthur Crofts 4 Part Series in Spinal Trauma Spine Research, Advanced Whiplash Topics, Personal Injury and Forensic Documentation, Impairment Rating and Forensic Reporting, Medicolegal Fundamentals. Institute of San Diego, 1996

SELECTED MEMBERSHIPS

  • Academy of Chiropractic-Active Trauma Team Member, 2017-Present
  • International Association of Functional Neurology and Rehabilitation, 2017-Present
  • American Academy of Medical Legal Professionals, Member, 2012-Present
  • Connecticut Chiropractic Council, Member, 1995-Present
  • International Chiropractic Association, Member, 1988-Present